Family Ichneumonidae (Ichneumon Wasps)

Ichneumon wasps, like most other wasps belonging to ‘Parasitica’, are parasitoids. Most attack the larvae of Lepidoptera and sawflies (Symphyta: Hymenoptera), including many economic pests within these groups. However a wide range of other insects and non-insect arthropods are also parasitised. Their life-strategies are diverse. The more primitive ichneumons will seek out large hosts such as late instar caterpillars and then permanently paralyse, or kill, them. Their larvae will then develop quickly as they devour the host. Some will attack immotile hosts such as pupae or egg-sacs. A more sophisticated life history is taken by ichneumons who oviposit on, or into, a host early in the host’s development. The parasitic larva then delays it’s own development while the host is allowed to continue to feed and grow. Eventually the parasite will devour and kill the host, usually when the host prepares to pupate. Some ichneumons are secondary parasites, also called ‘hyperparasites’, and thus attack parasitic larvae already established including those of Braconidae, Tachinidae, and other Ichneumonidae.

Tasmania has a rich ichneumon fauna with over ninety described species. The bulk of these occur among subfamilies Campopleginae, Pimplinae, Labeninae, Cryptinae, and Ophioninae. Brief Tasmanian specific descriptions are given for the females of some subfamilies, however they are not to be considered diagnostic.

Subfamily Anomaloninae

    

Subfamily Banchinae

      

Subfamily Campopleginae
    

Subfamily Cremastinae

 

Subfamily Cryptinae

             

Subfamily Ctenopelmatinae

 

Subfamily Ichneumoninae

       

Subfamily Labeninae

              

Subfamily Mesochorinae
   

Subfamily Metopiinae

      IMG 8654  IMG 8660

Subfamily Ophioninae

   

Subfamily Pimplinae

Lissopimpla excelsa 01c    .    

Subfamily Tryphoninae

   

Subfamily Acaenitinae
Subfamily Brachycyrtinae
Subfamily Diplazontinae
Subfamily Eucerotinae
Subfamily Lycorininae
Subfamily Masoninae
Subfamily Orthocentrinae
Subfamily Pedunculinae
Subfamily Rhyssinae
Subfamily Tersilochinae
Subfamily Xoridinae

Pending ID – Ichneumonidae
         

References

Gauld, I. D. 1976. A revision of the Anomaloninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 24: 597-634.

Gauld, I. D. 1976. The taxonomy of the genus Heteropelma Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 34: 153-219.

Gauld, I. D. 1977. A revision of the Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 49: 1-112.
Gauld, I. D. 1984. The Pimplinae, Xoridae, Acaenitinae and Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 49: 235-339.
Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History), London;  413pp.

Gauld, I. D. & Holloway G. A. 1986. Australian ichneumonids of the tribes Labenini and Poecilocryptini. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 53: 107-149.

Morley, C. 1913. Revision of the Ichneumonidae 2. Tribes Rhyssides, Echthromorphides, Anomalides and Paniscides. London : Collins.
Paull, C. & Austin A. D. 2006. The hymenopteran parasitoids of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 145-156.
Semmens, T. D., McQuillan, P. B., & Hayhurst G. 1992. Catalogue of the Insects of Tasmania. Department of Primary Industry Tasmania.

Short, M. W., Schmidt, S., & Steinbauer, M. J. 2006. A key to some Australian genera of large nocturnal Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), including flight periodicities and influence of moon phase on light trap catches. Australian Entomologist 33: 49-55.

Turner, R. E. 1919. Notes on the Ichneumonidae in the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 9: 550-58.

Turner, R. E. & Waterston, J. 1920. A revision of the Ichneumonid genera Labium and Poecilocryptus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1920 1: 1-26.